Molecular and electrophysiological characterization of sleep and wakeful states in the avian brain. Stephany Gail Jones

ISBN: 9780549634607

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NOOKstudy eTextbook

181 pages


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Molecular and electrophysiological characterization of sleep and wakeful states in the avian brain.  by  Stephany Gail Jones

Molecular and electrophysiological characterization of sleep and wakeful states in the avian brain. by Stephany Gail Jones
| NOOKstudy eTextbook | PDF, EPUB, FB2, DjVu, talking book, mp3, ZIP | 181 pages | ISBN: 9780549634607 | 8.58 Mb

Avian and mammalian sleep share a number of important features. Despite considerable morphological and cytological differences between the avian hyperpallium and the mammalian neocortex, birds are the only non-mammalian class to show both rapid eye-movement (REM) and non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep. Although little data are available on sleep regulatory mechanisms in birds, available evidence suggests that the neural control of sleep is likely similar between the two classes.

Notwithstanding these similarities, however, there are also potentially meaningful differences between avian and mammalian sleep expression, which may indicate that these similarities are merely superficial and do not reflect true functional similarities.

Notably, the white-crowned ( Zonotrichia leucophrys), like other avian species, engages in long-term migratory sleeplessness without the subsequent increases in sleep intensity or obvious cognitive impairment associated with similar duration sleep loss in mammals. In the first part of this thesis, we performed gene expression analysis in the avian telencephalon to identify potential cellular correlates that might aid birds in the accomplishment of this feat, and consider this profile of gene expression in the context of enforced sleep restriction.

Interestingly, rather than being a state of absolute transcriptional uniqueness, many of the expression changes identified were previously associated with spontaneous wakefulness and short-term sleep deprivation in rodents and fruit flies.-We then assessed whether fundamental molecular and electrophysiological features of mammalian sleep are similarly expressed in this avian species. First, using microarray technology and quantitative PCR, we demonstrate that gene expression patterns during sleep, wakefulness and short-term sleep deprivation in the avian telencephalon overlap significantly with the pattern of vigilance state-related gene expression in the rodent neocortex.

Our results strongly indicate that the cellular consequences of sleep and waking are conserved in phylogenetically distant species.-Second, we quantified electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the slow wave activity (delta) frequency range of NREM sleep following short-term sleep deprivation in the bird.

Our results demonstrate that, as in all mammals studied to date, extending the period of wakefulness leads to compensatory increases in sleep intensity during the subsequent sleep period and indicate that another fundamental feature of sleep, its homeostatic regulation, is evolutionarily conserved.



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